Units 1 and 2

Computing Units 1 and 2

Key Knowledge (KK)

Go to unit 1 – outcome 1 | outcome 2 | outcome 3

Goto unit 2 – outcome 1 | outcome 2 | outcome 3

Legend
  • UxOy = Unit x Outcome y
  • KK = key knowledge
  • AOS = area of study
  • SAC = school assessed coursework (e.g. U1O1, U2O3)
  • DBMS = Database management software (not necessarily relational)
Other Unit 1+2 goodies

Unit 1

Software tools These are the software tools that students are required to both study and use.*

AOS 1 – Any software tool to create a graphic solution AOS 3 – Web authoring software, visualising thinking tool/s, tool for planning a project These are software tool that students are required to use, but not study*

AOS 2 – A graphic tool to represent a network solution*

The ‘Advice for Teachers’ slideshow explains that: “Software that is to be “STUDIED AND USED”  have explicit reference made to the relevant software functions in the key knowledge and hence the skills in using this software are assessable Software that is said to be just ‘USED’  needs to be used by students, but is not part of the key knowledge and their skills in using the software are not assessed. What is assessed is the knowledge or skills that are demonstrated through the use of the software.

U1O1

Acquire, secure and interpret data, and design and develop a graphic solution that communicates the findings of an investigation.

From VCAA’s Advice for Teachers Infographics and data visualisations In Unit 1 students are required to create an infographic and in Unit 2 they are required to create a data visualisation. What’s the difference? Both infographics and data visualisations intend to add meaning to data to create information. While there are many similarities between the two, the main difference is in the purpose and the size of the dataset that students will interpret and manipulate, rather than the final product. Typically an infographic is designed to inform, educate or persuade an audience whereas a data visualisation aims to reduce the complexity of complex data so as to minimise the effort required to interpret the data. See Resources for further information on infographics.

Differences between infographics and data visualisations
  Unit 1: Infographic Unit 2: Data visualisation
Audience large (possibly global) select
Purpose to educate, persuade or inform to facilitate discovery/insight
Creation method usually handcrafted often involves automated processes
Data set acquire primary data authentic data from large repositories
Context investigate an issue reduce complexity of large data sets
Types of solutions charts, flowcharts, diagrams, images, hierarchies, animations, maps, timelines graphs, charts, spatial relationships, maps, histograms, network diagrams (nodes and edges) often solutions are dynamic
Considerations legal and ethical issues  

IT1 U1O1KK01-types and purposes of qualitative and quantitative data

Qualitatative data

  • Based on opinion
  • Often textual data
  • May be used to investigate a topic in preparation for further quantitative data collection (e.g.  to find what factors are relevant and important)
  • Needs to be encoded (translated) from words and ideas into a more consistent form that can be processed statistically. e.g. “Any time a person says that senior study causes stress, anxiety, worry, nervousness etc, code it as ‘STRESS’.”
  • Difficult, slow and expensive to process since it must be interpreted and encoded by a human before it’s meaningful.
  • Deep, rich and detailed, individualised, personal
  • Not much is collected
  • Answers questions like “Why do you drink alcohol?”, “How do you feel when you drink?”
  • Questions are often open-ended, and allow answers that are free-ranging with variable format, length and content.
  • Often collected by interviews, observation.

Quantitative data

  • Based on measurement
  • Usually numeric
  • Collected en masse, but often without depth
  • Often does not allow individual contributions that were not foreseen
  • Answers are often forced into discrete categories, e.g. true/false, on a scale from 1 to 9, never/sometimes/often/always.
  • Answers questions like “How often do you drink alcohol? Daily/weekly/monthly/never”, “When you drink alcohol, do you end up feeling happy or sad?”
  • Questions are often closed, with a strictly limited range of acceptable answers.
  • Often collected by questionnaires, surveys.

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK02-sources of, and methods and techniques for, acquiring and referencing primary data and information

Interviews

  • Can be time-consuming to conduct and interpret data
  • Can be responsive to answers that are given. Follow-up questions can be asked to elicit more information about an interesting or unexpected previous answer.
  • Face-to-face interviews allow interpretation of non-verbal cues such as body language, tone of voice (e.g. sarcasm), facial expressions, pauses or hesitations, excitement or lack of interest.

Observation

  • Allows an insight into people’s actual behaviour in their environment, as opposed to their biased self-reported account of their behaviour.
  • Time-consuming, expensive
  • Subject to observer bias during the interpretation of behaviours.

Experimentation

  • Follows the scientific method, so it should be controlled, impartial ,and reliable.
  • Can control variables, such as age, sex, previous experience, race, or whatever is relevant.
  • Can include a control group to see if findings are purely accidental or not.
  • Relies on statistical results of collected data
  • Results are probably free of the opinions of the experimenter.

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK03-factors affecting the quality of data and information such as relevance, accuracy, bias and reliability

Relevance – the extent to which data or information is connected to or appropriate to the matter in question. Irrelevant material may appear when a writer strays off the main topic. Material may also be relevant to one situation but not another. e.g. Methods of improving literacy in English primary schools would be relevant to discussion of English early education standards, but may have no relevance to similar discussions about Australian primary schools, or even English secondary schools. In many cases, information sourced from a particular place, time, or set of circumstances will only be relevant to that place or time and will not translate meaningfully to other situations.

Accuracy – the degree to which data or information represents the objective truth. e.g.

The objective truth: There are five cows in a paddock 

The statements…

  • “There are five animals in the paddock” is correct, but not too accurate.
  • “There are less than a dozen cows in the paddock” is also correct, but not very accurate.
  • “There are five Hereford cows in the paddock” is very accurate (if they are, in fact, Herefords)
  • “There are four cows in the paddock” is both inaccurate and incorrect.

Correctness – this is a term that has not been defined by VCAA. See my ramblings on the issue of correctness versus accuracy.

Bias – may be intentional or unintended. People tend to support or encourage things they themselves believe in or like. It can be hard to be completely objective and not let one’s own opinions affect one’s observations or judgements. 

Common biases are based on factors such as one’s culture, religion, race, sex, income, past experiences, political views, vested interests (especially financial ones), country of birth or residence, social class, clothing, appearance, age, wealth, or even the football team one barracks for.

Biases in information may be obvious and undisguised. Others may be consciously disguised in order to deceive or persuade. Some may be unconsciously biased. Be on the lookout for bias in discussions of topics that tend to be emotionally-charged, such as politics, sex and religion. Bias may be shown in the selection of facts given or evidence used, e.g. choosing information that is favourable and hiding unfavourable information. Bias may be evident in emotional language for or against a viewpoint. In extreme cases, information may be deliberately falsified or taken out of context to promote a certain stance.

Reliability – information is reliable if it can be trusted to be accurate, complete,  and unbiased. Certain sources will tend to be more reliable than others. Educational institutions will probably be more rigorous in their information quality than will – for example – commercial organisations, oppressive governments, churches, pressure groups, advocates, advertisers, sensationalist newspapers or TV shows. Knowledgeable sources such as highly educated researchers or experts in their fields will tend to be more reliable than anonymous writers on the internet. Any anonymous source should be treated with great caution. Organisations with strict oversight and accountability – such as certain government departments – will tend to be more reliable than organisations that have no governing authority that can force them to be transparent, fair, and accountable for their actions. Information that cites all of its reference sources can be relied on more than one that makes sweeping claims with no evidence, or refers vaguely to undefined sources or unnamed “experts”, or claim that “many people agree that…”

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK04-techniques for authorising the collection and use of data and information such as using consent forms

Especially important when collecting information from children and other people who may not understand the consequences of giving the information they give. In such cases, a parent or legal guardian may need to give consent.

Informed consent requires that information providers are told things like:

  • participation is voluntary
  • what information will be collected
  • how and where information will be collected
  • how long the data collection process will take
  • who is collecting the information
  • why the information is being collected, and the benefits of its collection
  • possible payments, costs, or reimbursements
  • how the information will be used
  • risks associated with providing the information, and compensation for injuries sustained from such risks
  • how the information will be protected
  • their rights to privacy, anonymity or confidentiality
  • they may refuse consent or withdraw consent at any time
  • they may ask for further information before giving consent or continuing with providing data
  • how to contact the information gatherers
  • whether they can receive findings gained from the research

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK05-techniques for protecting the privacy of the providers of data and information such as de-identifying personal data

De-identification can be achieved by:

  • replacing real names with arbitrary identifiers
  • collating many individuals’ information into summary statistics

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK06-physical and software controls used to protect the security of stored data such as backing up, usernames and passwords, systems protection software and encryption

Protecting the privacy of providers can be achieved by measures such as:

  • backing up users’ data so it can be restored if damaged or deleted
  • encrypting stored and communicated data 
  • installing routers and firewalls to protect local area networks (LANs) from unauthorised intrusion
  • using anti-malware software to prevent or detect worms, trojans, root kits, spyware, keyloggers etc being used to leak data
  • network auditing to constantly search for network security weaknesses or attacks
  • updating system software to include the most recent  protection against attacks
  • restricting data access to authorised users via strong passwords and/or biometric ID
  • using Virtual Private Networks (VPN) so authorised external users can safely access restricted data within the LAN

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK07-Australian Privacy Principles relating to the acquisition, management and communication of data and information, including

  • non-identification of individuals (principle 2),
  • information only being held for its primary purpose (principle 6)

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK08-ethical dilemmas arising from data acquisition strategies

 

ppt-icon Managing Ethical Dilemmas

IT1 U1O1KK09-types of graphic solutions suitable for educating, persuading and informing audiences

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK10-design tools for representing the functionality and appearance of graphic solutions such as input-process-output charts (functionality) and annotated diagrams/mock ups (appearance)

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK11-formats and conventions suitable for graphic solutions such as titles, text styles, shapes, lines and arrows, sources of data and legend, colours and contrasts

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK12-software functions and techniques for efficiently and effectively manipulating data to develop graphic solutions, and for validating data

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O1KK13-techniques for testing graphic solutions.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

U1O2

Design a network with wireless capability that meets an identified need or opportunity, explain its configuration and predict risks and benefits for intended users.

IT1 U1O2KK01-applications and capabilities of Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs)

 

ppt-icon Networks – LANs+design

IT1 U1O2KK02-functions and characteristics of key hardware and software components of networks required for communicating and storing data and information

 

ppt-icon Networks-hardware

IT1 U1O2KK03-purposes of network protocols

 

ppt-icon Network protocols

IT1 U1O2KK04-strengths and limitations of wireless communications technology, measured in terms of data transfer rate, data storage options, cost, security and reliability

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK05-types, capabilities and limitations of mobile devices connected to networks

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK06-security threats to data and information communicated and stored within networks

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK07-technical underpinnings of malware that intentionally threaten the security of networks

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK08-ways in which people, processes, digital systems and data combine to form networked information systems

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK09-legal requirements and ethical responsibilities of network professionals and users of networks with respect to social protocols and the ownership of data and information

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O2KK10-risks and benefits of using networks in a global environment.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

U1O3

Design and develop a website collaboratively with others that presents an analysis of a contemporary issue and the team’s point of view on the issue

IT1 U1O3KK01-applications of information systems in a range of settings: a detailed study in a particular field such as entertainment, agriculture, finance, sport, health, that focuses on:

  • the nature of a contemporary issue associated with the use of information systems;
  • legal, social, environmental or ethical reasons for a contentious issue;
  • types and capabilities of digital systems associated with the field and issue;
  • key stakeholders such as individuals, organisations and governments, and their responsibilities;
  • positive and negative opinions of each stakeholder about the issue

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK02 – a detailed study in a particular field such as entertainment, agriculture, finance, sport, health, that focuses on:

  • the nature of a contemporary issue associated with the use of information systems
  • legal, social, environmental or ethical reasons for a contentious issue
  • types and capabilities of digital systems associated with the field and issue
  • key stakeholders such as individuals, organisations and governments, and their responsibilities
  • positive and negative opinions of each stakeholder about the issue

ppt-icon Managing Ethical Dilemmas

IT1 U1O3KK03-ways in which end-users can express opinions on websites about how information systems are used for particular purposes such as writing a review in a text box and a rating system

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK04-sources of, and methods and techniques for, acquiring and referencing primary data and secondary data and information

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK05-factors affecting the integrity of data, such as correctness, reasonableness and accuracy

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK06-advantages and disadvantages of using cloud solutions, and using cloud computing for storing, communicating and disposing of data and information

 

ppt-icon Cloud Computing

IT1 U1O3KK07-impact of growth of mobile devices on website design

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK08-visualising thinking tools and techniques for supporting reasoning and decision making when analysing issues and ethical dilemmas

 

ppt-icon Managing Ethical Dilemmas

IT1 U1O3KK09 – key principles of information architecture

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK10-characteristics of effective user interfaces for mobile devices, for example useability, accessibility, tolerance, visibility, legibility, consistency, affordance

 

ppt-icon User Interfaces

IT1 U1O3KK11-design principles that influence the appearance of websites

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK12-design tools and techniques for representing websites

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK13-formats and conventions suitable for websites

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK14-software functions and techniques for manipulating and validating data, and testing websites

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT1 U1O3KK15-tools and techniques for coordinating the tasks, people, digital systems resources and time required to create solutions.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

 

Unit 2

Software tools These are the software tools that students are required to both study and use in unit 2* AOS 1 – A programming or scripting language that can support object-oriented programming AOS 2 – One data manipulation tool (e.g. a programming language, DBMS, spreadsheet software) and one visualisation tool AOS 3 – DBMS

U2O1

Design working modules in response to solution requirements, and use a programming or scripting language to develop the modules

IT2 U2O1KK01-characteristics of data types and methods of representing and storing text, sound and images

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK02-functions and capabilities of key hardware and software components of digital systems required for processing, storing and communicating data and information

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK03-functional requirements of solutions

 

ppt-icon Analysis Activities – requirements, constraints etc

IT2 U2O1KK04-methods for creating algorithms such as identifying the required output, the input needed to produce the output, and the processing steps necessary to achieve the transformation from a design to a solution

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK05-suitable methods of representing solution designs such as data dictionaries, data structure diagrams, object descriptions and pseudocode

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK06-characteristics of effective user interfaces, for example useability, accessibility, structure, visibility, legibility, consistency, tolerance, affordance

[Repeats U1O3KK10, with addition of ‘structure’]

ppt-icon User Interfaces

IT2 U2O1KK07-techniques for manipulating data and information

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK08-naming conventions for files and objects

 

ppt-icon Naming Conventions

IT2 U2O1KK09-testing and debugging techniques, including construction of test data.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK10-select and use appropriate methods for expressing solution designs, including user interfaces

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK11-apply techniques for manipulating data and information using a programming or scripting language

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O1KK12-devise meaningful naming conventions for files and objects

 

ppt-icon Object Naming Conventions

ppt-icon File Naming Conventions

IT2 U2O1KK13-apply testing techniques using appropriate test data.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

U2O2

Apply the problem-solving methodology and use appropriate software tools to extract relevant data and create a data visualisation that meets a specified user’s needs.

IT2 U2O2KK01-sources of authentic data in large repositories

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK02-factors influencing the integrity of data, for example accuracy, timeliness, authenticity, relevance

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK03-characteristics of data types and data structures relevant to selected software tools

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK04-types and purposes of data visualisations

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK05-problem-solving activities related to analysing needs: functional and non-functional requirements and constraints

 

ppt-icon Analysis Activities – requirements, constraints etc

IT2 U2O2KK06-characteristics of file formats and their suitability to be converted to other formats

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK07-design tools for representing data visualisations

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK08-formats and conventions applied to visualisations to improve their effectiveness for intended users

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK09-functions of appropriate software tools to extract targeted data and to manipulate data when developing visualisations

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O2KK10-criteria and techniques for evaluating visualisations.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

U2O3

Apply the problem-solving methodology to create a solution using database management software, and explain the personal benefits and risks of interacting with a database.

IT2 U2O3KK01-data sources and methods of data acquisition

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK02-characteristics of effective data collection tools and user interfaces for the purposes of entering data efficiently

 

ppt-icon User Interfaces

IT2 U2O3KK03-characteristics of data types

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK04-capabilities and limitations of database management software to manipulate data

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK05-roles, functions and characteristics of hardware components used to input, store, communicate and output data and information

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK06-accidental and deliberate security threats to data and information stored within databases

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK07-physical and software controls suitable for protecting the security of stored and transmitted data

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK08-the structure of a database, including fields, records and tables

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK09-design tools for representing input forms to capture data and reports to meet specific needs

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK10-design tools for representing the structure of databases

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK11-techniques for manipulating and validating data

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK12-formats and conventions applied to create effective solutions

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK13-applications of database systems in a range of settings

 

ppt-icon Still to come

IT2 U2O3KK14-personal benefits and risks arising from the use of databases.

 

ppt-icon Still to come

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